Pig or hog farming is a branch of animal husbandry dealing with the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock principally for meat. It’s a very popular agribusiness throughout the world with more than one billion pigs butchered each year throughout the world.
Pigs are well adapted to a wide variety of climatic conditions, and they can be raised in many different ways. They can be raised in intensive commercial units, extensive system, or in commercial free range systems.
Benefits /Advantages of Pig Farming Business
Pigs have the high breeding potential capacity (one pig can give birth to 10 to 12 piglets at once)
They have a fast growth rate (If you feed them well, they could grow and mature quickly so you could sell them off and start making within the shortest time frame)
Also, there’s a high demand for pork in local and foreign markets.
They have a high feed conversion rate. When you feed them well, the more flesh they add and the more meat you get out of them.
Money can be making from their waste products (pig dungs can be used for manure)
Challenges facing pig Farming Business
Cannibalism: Some sows (female pigs) eat their piglets during farrowing
Also, some pigs could easily crush their young ones while moving around in the pens or sleeping.
Pigs are highly prone to diseases due to their delicate nature, especially piglets. This could lead to high mortality rates and a massive loss for the farmer.
You’ll spend more on water and electricity, especially in areas where water and electricity are not readily available. This is because pigs consume a lot of water.
How to Start a Pig Farming Business
- Build the Piggery Housing: Building pig pens is essential for several reasons .First, it is essential to protect the pigs from predators and thieves, especially if you’re using an open space The pig housing should also have a good drainage system to avoid water stagnation which could harbor disease-causing organisms.
- Purchase Healthy Piglets: For a good start, it’s best to buy healthy piglets. Buy from a trusted source (Someone with good track records of selling healthy piglets).
- Consult/Hire A Veterinary Doctor: To ensure that you breed healthy pigs and run a successful pig farming business, you’ll need the services of a veterinary doctor.
- Hire Workers/Laborers: Depending on the size of your pig farm business (large or small scale), you’ll need to hire people to assist you on the farm. You’ll need help cleaning the pig shelter, feeding the pigs, keeping the pigs safe from harm.
- Purchase Good Feeds: pig’s health largely depends on how well you feed them. Pig need feeds rich in fiber, carbohydrates, vitamins, protein, and minerals to grow properly.
- Provide Clean Drinking Water: Clean drinkable water is also essential for the pigs’ due to pigs’ nature, you’ll need to constantly check and change the water to ensure that their drinking water is always clean
Cost Estimation for pig farming
NOTE: The amount mentioned vary with time, location, breeding program and the kind of housing to be used.
Cost of stocking farm
Assuming you are into pig fattening of 50 weaners at 15000 per weaner, it means you will need 750000 to purchase them.
A pig will consume 3kg of feed to give 1kg of meat, therefore, a weaner of 10kg will consume about 120kg of feed to add 40kg of weight and reach 50kg of slaughter weight. Average cost of pig feed per kg is now 150. To feed a pig from weaning stage of 10kg to slaughtering weight of 50kg will cost 120*150 to give 18000, so total cost of feeding 50 pigs will be 18000*50 to give 900000
Labour & Logistics
Two attendants will conveniently take care of 50 pigs at 20000 for each per month and a circle for pig to reach 50kg from 10kg is six month, to give 240000 on labour. 200000 can be budgeted for logistics and other miscellaneous expenses.
Total cost of production in rearing 50 pigs from weaner to 50kg can be sum up to be 2,090,000
Return on Investment
At 6 months, pig is expected to be ready for market at a cost of 1000 to 1500 per kg, going for average cost of 1200 per kg means a pig of 50kg will cost 50*1200 to give 60000, therefore, 50 pigs will sum up to 50*60000 to give 3000000,leading to a profit of 910,000.